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The goal is not toeliminate the fear, but to build confidence in your ability to function despite your fears. Be RealisticPage 14 of See circumstances as they are,not as you want them to be. Keep your hopes and expectations within the estimate of thesituation. When you go into a survival setting with unrealistic expectations, you may belaying the groundwork for bitter disappointment.

Follow the adage, "Hope for the best,prepare for the worst. Adopt a Positive AttitudeLearn to see the potential good in everything. Looking for the good not only boosts morale,it also is excellent for exercising your imagination and creativity. Remind Yourself What Is at StakeRemember, failure to prepare yourself psychologically to cope with survival leads toreactions such as depression, carelessness, inattention, loss of confidence, poor decision-making, and giving up before the body gives in.

At stake is your life and the lives of otherswho are depending on you to do your share. TrainThrough military training and life experiences, begin today to prepare yourself to cope withthe rigors of survival. Demonstrating your skills in training will give you the confidence tocall upon them should the need arise.

Remember, the more realistic the training, the lessoverwhelming an actual survival setting will be. Learn Stress Management TechniquesPeople under stress have a potential to panic if they are not well-trained and not preparedpsychologically to face whatever the circumstances may be. While we often cannot controlthe survival circumstances in which we find ourselves, it is within our ability to control ourresponse to those circumstances. Learning stress management techniques can enhancesignificantly your capability to remain calm and focused as you work to keep yourself andothers alive.

U.S. Army Survival Manual FM 21-76

A few good techniques to develop include relaxation skills, time managementskills, assertiveness skills, and cognitive restructuring skills the ability to control how youview a situation. Remember, "the will to survive" can also be considered to be "the refusal to give up. Thus, survival planning means preparation. Preparation means having survivalitems and knowing how to use them People who live in snow regions prepare their vehiclesfor poor road conditions.

They put snow tires on their vehicles, add extra weight in the backfor traction, and they carry a shovel, salt, and a blanket. Another example of preparation isfinding the emergency exits on an aircraft when you board it for a flight. Preparation couldalso mean knowing your intended route of travel and familiarizing yourself with the area. Finally, emergency planning is essential. Including survivalconsiderations in mission planning will enhance your chances of survival if an emergencyoccurs.

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For example, if your job re-quires that you work in a small, enclosed area that limitswhat you can carry on your person, plan where you can put your rucksack or your load-bearing equipment. Put it where it will not prevent you from getting out of the area quickly,yet where it is readily accessible. One important aspect of prior planning is preventive medicine. Ensuring that you have nodental problems and that your immunizations are current will help you avoid potentialdental or health problems.

A dental problem in a survival situation will reduce your abilityto cope with other problems that you face. Failure to keep your shots current may meanyour body is not immune to diseases that are prevalent in the area. Preparing and carrying a survival kit is as important as the considerations mentionedabove.

All Army aircraft normally have survival kits on board for the type area s over whichthey will fly. There are kits for over-water survival, for hot climate survival, and an aviatorsurvival vest see Appendix A for a description of these survival kits and their contents. Ifyou are not an aviator, you will probably not have access to the survival vests or survivalkits. However, if you know what these kits contain, it will help you to plan and to prepareyour own survival kit.

Even the smallest survival kit, if properly prepared, is invaluable when faced with a survivalproblem.

The Official US Army Survival Guide - Updated Edition (FM / FM ) | Carlile Media

Before making your survival kit, however, consider your units mission, theoperational environment, and the equipment and vehicles assigned to your unit. Howmuch equipment you put in your kit depends on how you will carry the kit. A kit carried onyour body will have to be smaller than one carried in a vehicle. Always layer your survivalkit, keeping the most important items on your body. For example, your map and compassshould always be on your body.

Carry less important items on your load-bearing equipment. Place bulky items in the rucksack. In preparing your survival kit, select items you can use for more than one purpose. If youhave two items that will serve the same function, pick the one you can use for anotherfunction. Do not duplicate items, as this increases your kits size and weight. Page 16 of You need only functional items that will meet yourneeds and a case to hold the items. For the case, you might want to use a Band-Aid box, afirst aid case, an ammunition pouch, or another suitable case.

Page 17 of Include a weapon only if the situation so dictates. Read about and practice the survivaltechniques in this manual. Consider your units mission and the environment in which yourunit will operate. Then prepare your survival kit. Page 18 of Many evaders and survivors have reported difficulty in treating injuries andillness due to the lack of training and medical supplies.

For some, this led tocapture or surrender.

US ARMY Survival Manual FM 21-76

Survivors have related feeling of apathy and helplessness because they couldnot treat themselves in this environment. The ability to treat themselvesincreased their morale and cohesion and aided in their survival and eventualreturn to friendly forces. One man with a fair amount of basic medical knowledge can make adifference in the lives of many. Without qualified medical personnel available,it is you who must know what to do to stay alive.

The U S Army Survival Manual Department of the Army Field Manual 21 76

You must also have and apply high personal hygienestandards. WaterYour body loses water through normal body processes sweating, urinating, anddefecating. During average daily exertion when the atmospheric temperature is 20degrees Celsius C 68 degrees Fahrenheit , the average adult loses and therefore requires2 to 3 liters of water daily. Other factors, such as heat exposure, cold exposure, intenseactivity, high altitude, burns, or illness, can cause your body to lose more water. You mustreplace this water. Dehydration results from inadequate replacement of lost body fluids.

It decreases yourefficiency and, if injured, increases your susceptibility to severe shock. Consider thefollowing results of body fluid loss:Page 19 of Last on the list because you are already 2 percent dehydrated by the time youcrave fluids. You replace the water as you lose it. Trying to make up a deficit is difficult in a survivalsituation, and thirst is not a sign of how much water you need. Most people cannot comfortably drink more than 1 liter of water at a time.

So, even whennot thirsty, drink small amounts of water at regular intervals each hour to preventdehydration. If you are under physical and mental stress or subject to severe conditions, increase yourwater intake. Drink enough liquids to maintain a urine output of at least 0. Page 20 of In an extremeclimate, especially an arid one, the average person can lose 2. In this type of climate, you should drink 14 to 30 liters of water per day.

With the loss of water there is also a loss of electrolytes body salts. The average diet canusually keep up with these losses but in an extreme situation or illness, additional sourcesneed to be provided. A mixture of 0. Of all the physical problems encountered in a survival situation, the loss of water is themost preventable. Water is used and consumed as a part of thedigestion process and can lead to dehydration.

The body performs more efficiently in extreme conditions whenacclimatized. Limit sweat-producing activities but drink water. Until you find a suitable source, ration your water sensibly. A dailyintake of cubic centimeter 0. You can estimate fluid loss by several means. A standard field dressing holds about 0. A soaked T-shirt holds 0. You can also use the pulse and breathing rate to estimate fluid loss. Vital signs above these rates require more advanced care. FoodAlthough you can live several weeks without food, you need an adequate amount to stayhealthy.

Without food your mental and physical capabilities will deteriorate rapidly, and youwill become weak. Food replenishes the substances that your body burns and providesenergy. It provides vitamins, minerals, salts, and other elements essential to good health. Possibly more important, it helps morale. Page 21 of In varying degreesboth provide the calories, carbohydrates, fats, and proteins needed for normal daily bodyfunctions.

Calories are a measure of heat and potential energy. The average person needs 2,calories per day to function at a minimum level. An adequate amount of carbohydrates,fats, and proteins without an adequate caloric intake will lead to starvation and cannibalismof the bodys own tissue for energy. Plant FoodsThese foods provide carbohydrates--the main source of energy. Many plants provideenough protein to keep the body at normal efficiency.

Although plants may not provide abalanced diet, they will sustain you even in the arctic, where meats heat-producingqualities are normally essential. Many plant foods such as nuts and seeds will give youenough protein and oils for normal efficiency. Roots, green vegetables, and plant foodcontaining natural sugar will provide calories and carbohydrates that give the body naturalenergy.

The food value of plants becomes more and more important if you are eluding the enemyor if you are in an area where wildlife is scarce. This retards spoilage so that you canstore or carry the plant food with you to use when needed. This is extremelyimportant when the enemy is near. Animal FoodsMeat is more nourishing than plant food.

In fact, it may even be more readily available insome places. However, to get meat, you need to know the habits of, and how to capture,the various wildlife. To satisfy your immediate food needs, first seek the more abundant and more easilyobtained wildlife, such as insects, crustaceans, mollusks, fish, and reptiles. These cansatisfy your immediate hunger while you are preparing traps and snares for larger game. Personal HygieneIn any situation, cleanliness is an important factor in preventing infection and disease. Itbecomes even more important in a survival situation. Poor hygiene can reduce yourchances of survival.

A daily shower with hot water and soap is ideal, but you can stay clean without this luxury. Use a cloth and soapy water to wash yourself. Pay special attention to the feet, armpits,crotch, hands, and hair as these are prime areas for infestation and infection. If water isscarce, take an "air" bath. Remove as much of your clothing as practical and expose yourbody to the sun and air for at least 1 hour. Be careful not to sunburn. If you dont have soap, use ashes or sand, or make soap from animal fat and wood ashes, ifyour situation allows. Page 22 of This liquid is the potash or lye.

Another way to get the lye is topour the slurry the mixture of ashes and water through a straining cloth. After the mixture--the soap--cools, you can use it in the semiliquid state directly from thepot. You can also pour it into a pan, allow it to harden, and cut it into bars for later use. Keep Your Hands CleanGerms on your hands can infect food and wounds. Wash your hands after handling anymaterial that is likely to carry germs, after visiting the latrine, after caring for the sick, andbefore handling any food, food utensils, or drinking water.

Keep your fingernails closelytrimmed and clean, and keep your fingers out of your mouth. Keep Your Hair CleanYour hair can become a haven for bacteria or fleas, lice, and other parasites. Keeping yourhair clean, combed, and trimmed helps you avoid this danger. Keep Your Clothing CleanKeep your clothing and bedding as clean as possible to reduce the chance of skin infectionas well as to decrease the danger of parasitic infestation. Clean your outer clothingwhenever it becomes soiled. Wear clean underclothing and socks each day.

If water isscarce, "air" clean your clothing by shaking, airing, and sunning it for 2 hours. If you areusing a sleeping bag, turn it inside out after each use, fluff it, and air it. Keep Your Teeth CleanThoroughly clean your mouth and teeth with a toothbrush at least once each day. If youdont have a toothbrush, make a chewing stick.

Find a twig about 20 centimeters long and 1centimeter wide. Chew one end of the stick to separate the fibers. Now brush your teeththoroughly. Another way is to wrap a clean strip of cloth around your fingers and rub yourPage 23 of You can also brush your teeth with small amountsof sand, baking soda, salt, or soap. Then rinse your mouth with water, salt water, or willowbark tea. Also, flossing your teeth with string or fiber helps oral hygiene. If you have cavities, you can make temporary fillings by placing candle wax, tobacco,aspirin, hot pepper, tooth paste or powder, or portions of a ginger root into the cavity.

Makesure you clean the cavity by rinsing or picking the particles out of the cavity before placinga filling in the cavity. Take Care of Your FeetTo prevent serious foot problems, break in your shoes before wearing them on any mission. Wash and massage your feet daily. Trim your toenails straight across. Wear an insole andthe proper size of dry socks. Powder and check your feet daily for blisters. If you get a small blister, do not open it. An intact blister is safe from infection.

Apply apadding material around the blister to relieve pressure and reduce friction. If the blisterbursts, treat it as an open wound. Clean and dress it daily and pad around it. Leave largeblisters intact. Thethread will absorb the liquid inside. This reduces the size of the hole and ensures thatthe hole does not close up. Get Sufficient RestYou need a certain amount of rest to keep going.

Plan for regular rest periods of at least 10minutes per hour during your daily activities. Learn to make yourself comfortable underless than ideal conditions. A change from mental to physical activity or vice versa can berefreshing when time or situation does not permit total relaxation. Keep Camp Site CleanDo not soil the ground in the camp site area with urine or feces. Use latrines, if available. When latrines are not available, dig "cat holes" and cover the waste.

Collect drinking waterupstream from the camp site. Purify all water. Breathing ProblemsPage 24 of When an individualis unconscious, the muscles of the lower jaw and tongue relax as the neck dropsforward, causing the lower jaw to sag and the tongue to drop back and block thepassage of air. Severe BleedingSevere bleeding from any major blood vessel in the body is extremely dangerous.

The lossof 1 liter of blood will produce moderate symptoms of shock. The loss of 2 liters will producea severe state of shock that places the body in extreme danger. The loss of 3 liters isusually fatal. ShockShock acute stress reaction is not a disease in itself. It is a clinical condition characterizedby symptoms that arise when cardiac output is insufficient to fill the arteries with bloodunder enough pressure to provide an adequate blood supply to the organs and tissues. Reassure him and try to keep him quiet. Perform a rapid physical exam.

Look for the cause of the injury and follow the ABCs of firstaid, starting with the airway and breathing, but be discerning. A person may die fromarterial bleeding more quickly than from an airway obstruction in some cases. Open Airway and MaintainYou can open an airway and maintain it by using the following steps. Step 1. Check if the victim has a partial or complete airway obstruction. If he can cough orspeak, allow him to clear the obstruction naturally. Stand by, reassure the victim, and beready to clear his airway and perform mouth-to-mouth resuscitation should he becomeunconscious.

If his airway is completely obstructed, administer abdominal thrusts until theobstruction is cleared. Step 2. Using a finger, quickly sweep the victims mouth clear of any foreign objects, brokenteeth, dentures, sand. Page 25 of Using the jaw thrust method, grasp the angles of the victims lower jaw and lift withboth hands, one on each side, moving the jaw forward.

For stability, rest your elbows on thesurface on which the victim is lying.

If his lips are closed, gently open the lower lip with yourthumb Figure Step 4. With the victims airway open, pinch his nose closed with your thumb and forefingerand blow two complete breaths into his lungs. Step 5. If the forced breaths do not stimulate spontaneous breathing, maintain the victimsbreathing by performing mouth-to-mouth resuscitation. Step 6. There is danger of the victim vomiting during mouth-to-mouth resuscitation. Checkthe victims mouth periodically for vomit and clear as needed. Note: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation CPR may be necessary after cleaningthe airway, but only after major bleeding is under control.

Control BleedingIn a survival situation, you must control serious bleeding immediately because replacementfluids normally are not available and the victim can die within a matter of minutes. Blood vessels called arteries carry blood away from the heart and throughthe body. A cut artery issues bright red blood from the wound in distinct spurts orpulses that correspond to the rhythm of the heartbeat.

Because the blood in thearteries is under high pressure, an individual can lose a large volume of blood in ashort period when damage to an artery of significant size occurs. Therefore, arterialPage 26 of If not controlled promptly, it can befatal. Venous blood is blood that is returning to the heart through blood vesselscalled veins. A steady flow of dark red, maroon, or bluish blood characterizesbleeding from a vein. You can usually control venous bleeding more easily thanarterial bleeding. The capillaries are the extremely small vessels that connect the arterieswith the veins.

Capillary bleeding most commonly occurs in minor cuts and scrapes. This type of bleeding is not difficult to control. You can control external bleeding by direct pressure, indirect pressure points pressure,elevation, digital ligation, or tourniquet. Direct PressureThe most effective way to control external bleeding is by applying pressure directly overthe wound.

This pressure must not only be firm enough to stop the bleeding, but it mustalso be maintained long enough to "seal off" the damaged surface. If bleeding continues after having applied direct pressure for 30 minutes, apply a pressuredressing. This dressing consists of a thick dressing of gauze or other suitable materialapplied directly over the wound and held in place with a tightly wrapped bandage Figure It should be tighter than an ordinary compression bandage but not so tight that itimpairs circulation to the rest of the limb. Once you apply the dressing, do not remove it,even when the dressing becomes blood soaked.

Page 27 of In the long-term survival environment, make fresh, daily dressing changes and inspect forsigns of infection. ElevationRaising an injured extremity as high as possible above the hearts level slows blood loss byaiding the return of blood to the heart and lowering the blood pressure at the wound. However, elevation alone will not control bleeding entirely; you must also apply directpressure over the wound. When treating a snakebite, however, keep the extremity lowerthan the heart.

Pressure PointsA pressure point is a location where the main artery to the wound lies near the surface ofthe skin or where the artery passes directly over a bony prominence Figure You canuse digital pressure on a pressure point to slow arterial bleeding until the application of apressure dressing. Pressure point control is not as effective for controlling bleeding asPage 28 of It is rare when a single major compressible arterysupplies a damaged vessel. If you cannot remember the exact location of the pressure points, follow this rule: Applypressure at the end of the joint just above the injured area.

On hands, feet, and head, thiswill be the wrist, ankle, and neck, respectively. Too much pressure for too long may causeunconsciousness or death. Never place a tourniquet around the neck. Maintain pressure points by placing a round stick in the joint, bending the joint over thestick, and then keeping it tightly bent by lashing. By using this method to maintainpressure, it frees your hands to work in other areas. Digital LigationYou can stop major bleeding immediately or slow it down by applying pressure with a fingeror two on the bleeding end of the vein or artery.

Maintain the pressure until the bleedingstops or slows down enough to apply a pressure bandage, elevation, and so forth. TourniquetUse a tourniquet only when direct pressure over the bleeding point and all other methodsdid not control the bleeding. If you leave a tourniquet in place too long, the damage to thetissues can progress to gangrene, with a loss of the limb later.

An improperly appliedtourniquet can also cause permanent damage to nerves and other tissues at the site of theconstriction. If you must use a tourniquet, place it around the extremity, between the wound and theheart, 5 to 10 centimeters above the wound site Figure Never place it directly overthe wound or a fracture. Use a stick as a handle to tighten the tourniquet and tighten it onlyPage 29 of When you have tightened the tourniquet, bind the free end ofthe stick to the limb to prevent unwinding.

After you secure the tourniquet, clean and bandage the wound. A lone survivor does notremove or release an applied tourniquet.

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In a buddy system, however, the buddy canrelease the tourniquet pressure every 10 to 15 minutes for 1 or 2 minutes to let blood flowto the rest of the extremity to prevent limb loss. Prevent and Treat ShockAnticipate shock in all injured personnel. Page 30 of Once the victimis in a shock position, do not move him. Page 31 of FracturesThere are basically two types of fractures: open and closed.

With an open or compound fracture, the bone protrudes through the skin and complicates the actual fracture with anopen wound. After setting the fracture, treat the wound as any other open wound. The closed fracture has no open wounds. Follow the guidelines for immobilization, and setand splint the fracture. The signs and symptoms of a fracture are pain, tenderness, discoloration, swellingdeformity, loss of function, and grating a sound or feeling that occurs when broken boneends rub together.

Page 32 of For this reason minimum manipulation should be done, and only verycautiously. If you notice the area below the break becoming numb, swollen, cool to thetouch, or turning pale, and the victim shows signs of shock, a major vessel may have beensevered. You must control this internal bleeding. Rest the victim for shock, and replace lostfluids. Often you must maintain traction during the splinting and healing process. You caneffectively pull smaller bones such as the arm or lower leg by hand.

You can create tractionby wedging a hand or foot in the V-notch of a tree and pushing against the tree with theother extremity. You can then splint the break. Very strong muscles hold a broken thighbone femur in place making it difficult to maintaintraction during healing. Measure onefrom the patients armpit to 20 to 30 centimeters past his unbroken leg. Measure theother from the groin to 20 to 30 centimeters past the unbroken leg. Ensure that bothextend an equal distance beyond the end of the leg. Notch the ends without forks and lash a to centimetercross member made from a 5-centimeter diameter branch between them.

Using available material vines, cloth, rawhide , tie the splint around the upper portion ofthe body and down the length of the broken leg. Follow the splinting guidelines. Using the stick, twist the material to makethe traction easier. Note: Over time you may lose traction because the material weakened. Checkthe traction periodically. If you must change or repair the splint, maintain thetraction manually for a short time.

Page 33 of These misalignments can be extremely painful and can cause an impairment ofnerve or circulatory function below the area affected. You must place these joints back intoalignment as quickly as possible. Signs and symptoms of dislocations are joint pain, tenderness, swelling, discoloration,limited range of motion, and deformity of the joint.

You treat dislocations by reduction,immobilization, and rehabilitation. Reduction or "setting" is placing the bones back into their proper alignment. You can useseveral methods, but manual traction or the use of weights to pull the bones are the safestand easiest. Once performed, reduction decreases the victims pain and allows for normalfunction and circulation. Without an X ray, you can judge proper alignment by the look andfeel of the joint and by comparing it to the joint on the opposite side. Immobilization is nothing more than splinting the dislocation after reduction.

You can useany field-expedient material for a splint or you can splint an extremity to the body. To rehabilitate the dislocation, remove the splints after 7 to 14 days. Gradually use theinjured joint until fully healed. SprainsPage 34 of The signs andsymptoms are pain, swelling, tenderness, and discoloration black and blue.

I-Ice for 24 hours, then heat after that. If possible, leave theboot on a sprained ankle unless circulation is compromised. E - Elevation of the affected area. They not only cause irritations,but they are often carriers of diseases that cause severe allergic reactions in someindividuals. In many parts of the world you will be exposed to serious, even fatal, diseasesnot encountered in the United States. Ticks can carry and transmit diseases, such as Rocky Mountain spotted fever common inmany parts of the United States. Ticks also transmit the Lyme disease.

Mosquitoes may carry malaria, dengue, and many other diseases. Flies can spread disease from contact with infectious sources. They are causes of sleepingsickness, typhoid, cholera, and dysentery. Fleas can transmit plague. Lice can transmit typhus and relapsing fever. The best way to avoid the complications of insect bites and stings is to keep immunizations including booster shots up-to-date, avoid insect-infested areas, use netting and insectrepellent, and wear all clothing properly.

If you get bitten or stung, do not scratch the bite or sting, it might become infected. Inspectyour body at least once a day to ensure there are no insects attached to you. If you findticks attached to your body, cover them with a substance, such as Vaseline, heavy oil, ortree sap, that will cut off their air supply. Without air, the tick releases its hold, and you canremove it. Take care to remove the whole tick. Use tweezers if you have them. Grasp thetick where the mouth parts are attached to the skin.

Do not squeeze the ticks body. Washyour hands after touching the tick. Clean the tick wound daily until healed. TreatmentIt is impossible to list the treatment of all the different types of bites and stings. Page 35 of If you cannotremember the exact dose rate to treat a disease, 2 tablets, 4 times a day for 10 to14 days will usually kill any bacteria. Bee and Wasp StingsIf stung by a bee, immediately remove the stinger and venom sac, if attached, by scrapingwith a fingernail or a knife blade.

Do not squeeze or grasp the stinger or venom sac, assqueezing will force more venom into the wound. Wash the sting site thoroughly with soapand water to lessen the chance of a secondary infection. If you know or suspect that you are allergic to insect stings, always carry an insect sting kitwith you. Spider Bites and Scorpion StingsThe black widow spider is identified by a red hourglass on its abdomen. Only the femalebites, and it has a neurotoxic venom. The initial pain is not severe, but severe local painrapidly develops.

The pain gradually spreads over the entire body and settles in theabdomen and legs. Abdominal cramps and progressive nausea, vomiting, and a rash mayoccur. Weakness, tremors, sweating, and salivation may occur. Anaphylactic reactions canoccur. Symptoms begin to regress after several hours and are usually gone in a few days.

Threat for shock. Be ready to perform CPR. Clean and dress the bite area to reduce the riskof infection. An antivenin is available. The funnelweb spider is a large brown or gray spider found in Australia. The symptoms andthe treatment for its bite are as for the black widow spider. The brown house spider or brown recluse spider is a small, light brown spider identified by adark brown violin on its back.


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There is no pain, or so little pain, that usually a victim is notaware of the bite. Within a few hours a painful red area with a mottled cyanotic centerPage 36 of Necrosis does not occur in all bites, but usually in 3 to 4 days, a star-shaped, firmarea of deep purple discoloration appears at the bite site. The area turns dark andmummified in a week or two. The margins separate and the scab falls off, leaving an openulcer. Secondary infection and regional swollen lymph glands usually become visible at thisstage. The outstanding characteristic of the brown recluse bite is an ulcer that does notheal but persists for weeks or months.

In addition to the ulcer, there is often a systemicreaction that is serious and may lead to death. Reactions fever, chills, joint pain, vomiting,and a generalized rash occur chiefly in children or debilitated persons. Tarantulas are large, hairy spiders found mainly in the tropics. Most do not inject venom,but some South American species do.

They have large fangs. If bitten, pain and bleedingare certain, and infection is likely. Treat a tarantula bite as for any open wound, and try toprevent infection. If symptoms of poisoning appear, treat as for the bite of the black widowspider. Scorpions are all poisonous to a greater or lesser degree.

Possible prickly sensation around the mouth and a thick-feeling tongue. Local pain may bepresent. Systemic reaction includes respiratory difficulties, thick-feeling tongue, bodyspasms, drooling, gastric distention, double vision, blindness, involuntary rapidmovement of the eyeballs, involuntary urination and defecation, and heart failure.

Death is rare, occurring mainly in children and adults with high blood pressure orillnesses. Treat scorpion stings as you would a black widow bite. SnakebitesThe chance of a snakebite in a survival situation is rather small, if you are familiar with thevarious types of snakes and their habitats.

However, it could happen and you should knowhow to treat a snakebite. Deaths from snakebites are rare. More than one-half of thesnakebite victims have little or no poisoning, and only about one-quarter develop serioussystemic poisoning. However, the chance of a snakebite in a survival situation can affectmorale, and failure to take preventive measures or failure to treat a snakebite properly canresult in needless tragedy. The primary concern in the treatment of snakebite is to limit the amount of eventual tissuedestruction around the bite area. A bite wound, regardless of the type of animal that inflicted it, can become infected frombacteria in the animals mouth.

With nonpoisonous as well as poisonous snakebites, thislocal infection is responsible for a large part of the residual damage that results. Snake venoms not only contain poisons that attack the victims central nervous system neurotoxins and blood circulation hemotoxins , but also digestive enzymes cytotoxins to aid in digesting their prey. These poisons can cause a very large area of tissue death,leaving a large open wound. This condition could lead to the need for eventual amputationif not treated.

Shock and panic in a person bitten by a snake can also affect the persons recovery. Excitement, hysteria, and panic can speed up the circulation, causing the body to absorbthe toxin quickly. Signs of shock occur within the first 30 minutes after the bite. Before you start treating a snakebite, determine whether the snake was poisonous ornonpoisonous. Bites from a nonpoisonous snake will show rows of teeth.

Bites from aPage 37 of Symptoms of a poisonous bite may bespontaneous bleeding from the nose and anus, blood in the urine, pain at the site of thebite, and swelling at the site of the bite within a few minutes or up to 2 hours later. Breathing difficulty, paralysis, weakness, twitching, and numbness are also signs ofneurotoxic venoms. Dispatched from the UK in 3 business days When will my order arrive? Home Contact us Help Free delivery worldwide. Free delivery worldwide. Bestselling Series.

Harry Potter. Popular Features. New Releases. Army Survival Manual FM Description The U. Army Survival Manual: FM There are many other copies available which are not authentic or have cut out pages and chapters.