PDF Words Of Rhyme

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Then explore a little and be surprised by words that are older than you expect frenemy , , and watch cultural changes emerge as words are born radio star , ; megastar , ; air guitar , Does your birthday word capture your era? Does it fit your personality? Perhaps birthday words could become the basis for a new kind of horoscope. Baby names can be just as in vogue , as unpopular , and occasionally as controversial as any fashion trend. If you were ever curious to see which names were the most popular in your home state, now you can.

The Social Security Administration has an interactive tool on its website that allows users to see the top names that made it onto birth certificates by both birth year and state. Maine, for example, saw a high number of Olivers and Charlottes born in while Brysons and Viviennes rolled in last. If one were to turn the Census clock back to the earliest year the tool can take you to , they would find that Pine Tree State folks were most partial to the names David and Susan. The names at the bottom for that year?

Darryl and Lynne. Baby names can offer telling insight into an era—they often reflect significant cultural happenings of the time. Each of the names on the website were taken from Social Security applications.

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There are certain credentials by which names are listed, including the name being at least two characters long. Although it is not provided by the tool, records kept by the administration list the most popular names as far back as the s. Thus rhyme is not only facilitative for learning, but when the novel vocabulary is specifically in a position where it is predictable from the rhymes, it is most accessible. Shared storybook reading is a triangular interaction—the adult reader, the child, and the book conspire to create a meaningful experience each time a book is shared; and one of the many benefits for young children who regularly share in storybooks with their parents is the positive impact that has on their vocabulary growth Senechal et al.

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Books present new words to young listeners, parents actively highlight those new words, expand on them, and help to make them memorable for the child e. Even in the earliest years caregivers use storybooks as a vehicle for pointing out new vocabulary Ninio, ; Moerk, ; Fletcher and Reese, , but for 2- to 5-year-olds in a rapid period of word learning, storybook reading is the perfect opportunity to hear an abundance of new words in engaging contexts, and to take part in questions and conversations which promote vocabulary learning Ard and Beverly, ; Blewitt et al.

Of course, the connection between storybook reading and vocabulary growth is not always a simple one. Learning words from books is mediated by many factors—the frequency of reading Bus et al. Typically, a more dialogic reading style by parents with open-ended questions, elaborations and repetitions which encourages the child to comment on the book e. For instance, Ard and Beverly found that children learned more novel words from storybooks when they heard extra comments or questions about those words during the reading session.

Hindman et al. They discovered that it was not just extra talk about the meanings of new words that affected word learning, but specifically talk that prompted children to recall, predict, and make inferences when reading stories that predicted gains in children's vocabulary. Thus, simply hearing new words in storybooks can help a child learn those words, but actively engaging with the words seems to provide an extra memory and learning boost. So while we have amassed research on the role adult readers play in promoting word learning from storybooks and what characteristics of children may make them more receptive, we know much less about how the third part of this interaction, the book itself, helps to encourage word learning.

Do some books prompt more active engagement on the part of the child? Are there features of certain types of books that might encourage more questions, more predictions, or simply more memorable words? In particular, what difference does rhyme, a ubiquitous storybook feature, make in helping children grow their vocabulary? In fact, despite the ubiquity of rhyme in the life of a preschooler and the intuitions of parents and teachers e.

Thus, a child who is read to regularly could be hearing hundreds of hours of rhymed language before the end of preschool. Children don't just hear a lot of rhyme they also clearly enjoy it. In Hayes et al. This seems unsurprising as it fits anecdotally with the first-hand experience of parents, teachers, and children's book writers, but what is the advantage to rhyme over prose besides the delight in it?

Experience with rhymes, whether gleaned from storybooks or simply recited orally, does correlate positively with other measures of language development. In a meta-analysis of 12 studies with 3- to 6-year-olds, Dunst et al. The link from rhymes to reading outcomes is assumed to proceed through heightening phonological sensitivity e.

But our own query is more specific—could rhymes help foster language development because they make the vocabulary within them more predictable and thus easier to remember? Two researchers in the last 40 years who have directly compared what children remember from prose vs. However, Sheingold and Foundas found that 6-year-olds recalled just as many details of a story when they heard rhyming vs.

In addition, children recalled more of the specific rhyming words of stories compared to other details Hayes et al.

Rhymes for Young Learners

Recently our own work has investigated the effects of rhymed versus unrhymed stories on 2- to 4-year-old children's ability to recall familiar animal names from a parent—child storybook reading session Read and Macauley, submitted. We found not only that children remembered more target words when they had been presented in a rhymed story, but also that parents reading rhymed versions of the story would pause longer before naming a target animal and that in concert children would spontaneously guess the name of the animal during such pauses with significantly higher accuracy in the rhyming condition.

This highlighted the way that rhyme supports predictability, but also how that predictability might be making the words themselves more memorable. Thus, rhyme, as well as being potentially engaging and playful, may be especially facilitative for recall because of how it can support active predictions about upcoming words. Thus if rhyme is helpful to children for remembering such predictable familiar words, the question that follows is whether it could also aid in learning new words.

This may be the case because stories written in verse increase the amount of overall predictability in the phrases children hear. Rhyme builds up an expectation for the sounds of upcoming words even if they are unfamiliar, and added to other cues like the story narrative or illustrations, can give a child clues about the form of a novel word at the end of a line even before it is read. Recent research demonstrates how predictability gives children an edge in language comprehension and language learning.

When words are predictable, for example when they are placed in frequent frames Fernald and Hurtado, or common phrases like brush your… teeth Arnon and Clark, or contextually specific phrases like the pirate buried the… treasure Borovsky et al. Predictability also influences how well children learn novel words.

Ramscar et al. They found that when a novel label is preceded by the discriminating features of a novel object then that label can be learned more easily, meaning that the most supportive thing we can do to teach a new word is to name it after the features that predict it. Could a similar kind of predictability, the kind that rhyme adds to language as a redundant cue to the relevant features and the sound of a new word, also make that new word more memorable, and thus more learnable?

The present study was designed to look not just at whether rhyme would aid memory for words from storybooks, but whether the specific way in which the rhyme sets up those new words would make a difference to how well children could retain and learn them. If rhyme makes words more memorable simply because it makes a storybook more engaging, then it would not matter where a new word was placed within a rhyming stanza, that word should still receive a boost.

If rhyme makes words more memorable simply by highlighting them phonologically through the repetition of sound, then only novel words that are rhymed elements themselves should benefit.

➜ Words That Rhyme With In | All In Rhyming Words List

However, if the predictability that the rhyme creates is what boosts memory and learning then where the novel word is placed within a stanza should matter—putting the new word in the most predictable place at the end of the stanza after drawing attention to the novel features that distinguish it, and setting up an expectation for what it should sound like should be most beneficial for remembering and learning that new word. Thus, in two experiments we attempted to teach young children the novel names of several unfamiliar monsters under each kind of rhyming condition—one in which the monster name, though embedded within a rhyme, was not a rhyming element itself; one in which the monster name was a rhyming element but it was the first one heard; and one condition in which the monster name was the last rhyming element in a four-line stanza meant to provide the maximal amount of predictability.

Eighteen participants were girls and eight were boys. All were learning English as their primary language without any reported language delays or disabilities. Children were recruited through an on-campus preschool in Santa Clara, California, and tended to be from homes in which parents were college-educated and of moderate to high income levels.

Children were randomly assigned to each of three conditions resulting in equal distribution of ages and genders among groups. One additional child participated but was excluded from all analyses due to inattentiveness and failure to participate in answering the test questions. Each story was a six-page rhyming introduction to a series of novel friendly monsters. Each page in the story featured a new monster on a white background, and the text of one rhyming stanza describing him.

Each monster was illustrated to have a prominent feature e.

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The monster names were all one syllable, and each started with one of three consonant clusters and ended in a common rime. This was done so that we could create novel names that would, nonetheless, rhyme with features that would be common words even for children as young as two. See Appendix for the full text of all the rhymes and monster names used in each condition. The reader used a child-friendly, evenly paced tone, and all stanzas were approximately the same volume and duration between 11 and 12 s , as were all target monster names between and ms. The study was conducted in a small quiet room meant to be inviting to children but relatively free of distractions at the children's preschool.

Each child was told that after the story the experimenter would ask some questions about the names of the monsters. Children were randomly assigned to one of three between-subject conditions and heard the corresponding story. The pictures of the monsters and the order in which they were presented were identical in each condition; what differed among conditions was the placement of the monster name within the stanza and whether it was rhymed with the distinguishing features of the monster.

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In the non-rhyme condition, the monster name came within the first line and did not rhyme with the feature that distinguished it though the stanza, itself, still rhymed. In the non-predictive rhyme condition, the name of the monster was a rhyming element, but came at the end of the first line, before the description of his unique rhyming feature. In the predictive rhyme condition each monster's name rhymed with his unique feature and came at the end of the four-line stanza. After hearing the story, children were presented with monster pairs and asked to choose the named monster by pointing to his picture, e.

Children's responses to both sets of questions were recorded during testing by one experimenter and then checked against the video-recordings later the same day by a second experimenter. Children were given credit for a correct response on identification questions if they pointed first to the target monster or if they verbally described it, e. In order to investigate the effects of rhyme and rhyme placement on children's success in our tasks we did separate analyses of covariance ANCOVAs for the identification task and for the production task.

These results indicate that the condition that promoted the best retention of the novel monster names was, as we hypothesized, the condition that provided children with the maximal amount of predictability. In other words, when the monster name came after the feature that distinguished that monster and when the sound of the monster's name could be predicted from three prior rhyming elements, then the name-monster mapping was easiest for children to recall.

The finding that performance of children in the non-predictive rhyme condition did not differ from either of the other conditions hinted that simply using the novel name as a rhyming element at the beginning of the stanza, where it also received line-final stress but was less predictable may have not have been enough to make it more memorable than a non-rhyming novel name. However, because the difference between performance in the predictive and non-predictive rhyme conditions was not statistically significant, we could not be certain that placement alone rather than a combination of placement and rhyme was the important contributing factor.

Eminem Proves There Are Plenty Of Words That Rhyme With 'Orange'

In order to focus in on the comparison between the most predictable rhymed novel words and the less predictable but still rhymed novel words, and to reduce the amount of extraneous variability inherent in a between subjects comparison of young children, we designed Experiment 2 as a within-subjects comparison of just the predictive and non-predictive rhyme conditions. In addition, perhaps unsurprisingly, identifying correct monsters when given their names in a two-alternative forced choice test appeared to be easier for children than producing their names spontaneously.

The production test may have been especially taxing for young children because of their language or memory skills in general but also because young children may not have been comfortable answering questions and speaking out loud to an unfamiliar adult. Producing the monster names required more memory of the monsters but also more verbal ability and more confidence than simply identifying the monsters when named. To improve the naturalness of the experience for children and potentially their comfort level we also moved to a parent—child reading of the books in Experiment 2 rather than a pre-recorded narration of the book.

We believed bringing parents into the lab along with their children would emulate the child's more typical storybook reading experience, and would allow children and their parents to control the pacing in a more natural way that might help them remember and learn the monster names more successfully.

Having the parents read the stories to their children also enabled us to consider the impact of reading style variables e. So, in Experiment 2, we attempted to improve on Experiment 1 by investigating performance in a new group of children of the same age who heard the same predictive and non-predictive rhymes from Experiment 1, but in a within-subjects design.

And, instead of hearing the rhymes pre-recorded, children's caregivers read the stories naturally allowing for variation in overall timing, pauses, emphasis and extra-textual talk as they might use in a more common and comfortable storybook experience at home. Sixteen of the participants were girls, 12 were boys. Singing and reciting with your child is also a great way of bonding with them. Here are the words and actions to some popular songs and nursery rhymes, with some mp3s to listen and sing along to as well.

Animal Fair As I was going to St. Dingly Dangly Scarecrow Dance to your daddie. Georgie Porgie Girls and boys, come out to play. Monday's Child. Sleeping Bunnies Solomon Grundy. Valentine Vintery Mintery Cutery Corn.